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Santa Claus
Santa Claus is a blend of many different cultures, customs, legends and mythological creatures. Much is based on St. Nicholas, and a friendlier "Kriss Kringle" amalgam of the Christkindlein (the Christ child, or "Christkindlein") and Belznickel figures. The Christkindlein accompanied Nicholas-like figures with other names (such as "Père Nöel" in France), or he travelled with a dwarf-like helper (known in some places as "Belznickel," or Nicholas with furs).

The mythological characters of Odin, Thor and Saturn gave the basis for many of Santa's distinctive characteristics. St. Nicholas' appearance transformed the image into the fat, jolly winter spirit similar to the ancient Nordic/Teutonic god Odin.


9th Century
In 9th century England the Saxons honoured King Winter or King Frost. He would be represented by somebody dressed in a fur hat or crown and would visit their firesides. The Saxons believed that by welcoming Winter as a personage or deity the season would be less harsh to them.

9th & 10th Century
With the arrival of the Vikings in England during the 9th and 10th centuries Odin, their chief god, influenced the Winter gift practices. Odin had twelve characters and the one for December was known as Yalka or Jule and his month was called Jultid from which Yuletide derives. The Vikings believed that Odin visited Earth during Jultid on Sleipnir, his eight-legged horse. He would be disguised in a long blue hooded cloak and carrying a staff and a satchel of bread. His companion was either a Raven or Crow. He was said to join groups around their fire and listen to their conversations to see if they were content. He would sometimes leave the bread as a gift at poor homesteads.

11th & 12th Century
A church was built to honour St. Nicholas which became a pilgrimage site for Christians who spread the legend of St. Nicholas. He was known as St Nikolaus in Germany and in Holland as Sinter Klaas. France, Germany and Holland celebrated his feast day on 6 December and gifts were given to children and the poor to commemorate him.

17th  & 18th Century
The legend of Sinter Klaas crossed the Atlantic with 17th century Dutch settlers to New York.

18th & 19th Century
In the 1800's the legend evolved replacing Santa's horse with reindeer and sledge, losing Black Peter, (too scary), and embellishing such details as the toy workshop at the North Pole run by Elves.

In 1804, the New York Historical Society was founded with Nicholas as its patron saint, its members reviving the Dutch tradition of St. Nicholas as a gift-bringer. In 1809, Washington Irving published his satirical A History of New York, by one "Diedrich Knickerbocker," a work that poked fun at New York's Dutch past (St. Nicholas included). When Irving became a member of the Society the following year, the annual St. Nicholas Day dinner festivities included a woodcut of the traditional Nicholas figure (tall, with long robes) accompanied by a Dutch rhyme about "Sancte Claus" (in Dutch, "Sinterklaas"). Irving revised his History of New York in 1812, adding details about Nicholas' "riding over the tops of the trees, in that selfsame waggon wherein he brings his yearly presents to children." In 1821, a New York printer named William Gilley issued a poem about a "Santeclaus" who dressed all in fur and drove a sleigh pulled by one reindeer. Gilley's "Sante," however, was very short.

On Christmas Eve of 1822, another New Yorker, Clement Clarke Moore, wrote down and read to his children a series of verses; his poem was published a year later as "An Account of a Visit from St. Nicholas" (more commonly known today by its opening line, "'Twas the night before Christmas . . ."). Moore gave St. Nick eight reindeer (and named them all), and he devised the now-familiar entrance by chimney. Moore's Nicholas was still a small figure, however -- the poem describes a "miniature sleigh" with a "little old driver."

Meanwhile, in parts of Europe such as Germany, Nicholas the gift-giver had been superseded by a representation of the infant Jesus (the Christ child, or "Christkindlein"). The Christkindlein accompanied Nicholas-like figures with other names (such as "Père Nöel" in France), or he travelled with a dwarf-like helper (known in some places as "Pelznickel," or Nicholas with furs). Belsnickle (as Pelznickel was known in the German-American dialect of Pennsylvania) was represented by adults who dressed in furry disguises (including false whiskers), visited while children were still awake, and put on a scary performance. Gifts found by children the next morning were credited to Christkindlein, who had come while everyone was asleep. Over time, the non-visible Christkindlein (whose name mutated into "Kriss Kringle") was overshadowed by the visible Belsnickle, and both of them became confused with St. Nicholas and the emerging figure of Santa Claus.

The man-sized version of Santa became the dominant image around 1841, when a Philadelphia merchant named J.W. Parkinson hired a man to dress in "Criscringle" clothing and climb the chimney outside his shop.

In 1863, a caricaturist for Harper's Weekly named Thomas Nast began developing his own image of Santa. Nast gave his figure a "flowing set of whiskers" and dressed him "all in fur, from his head to his foot." Nast's 1866 montage entitled "Santa Claus and His Works" established Santa as a maker of toys; an 1869 book of the same name collected new Nast drawings with a poem by George P. Webster that identified the North Pole as Santa's home. Although Nast never settled on one size for his Santa figures (they ranged from elf-like to man-sized), his 1881 "Merry Old Santa Claus" drawing is quite close to the modern-day image.

20th Century

The Santa Claus figure, although not yet standardized, was ubiquitous by the late 19th century. Santa was portrayed as both large and small; he was usually round but sometimes of normal or slight build; and he dressed in furs (like Belsnickle) or cloth suits of red, blue, green, or purple. A Boston printer named Louis Prang introduced the English custom of Christmas cards to America, and in 1885 he issued a card featuring a red-suited Santa. The Santa with a red suit began to replace the fur-dressed Belsnickle image and the multicolored Santas. Although Santa Claus was still wearing different colors of garb into the 20th century, the red suit had become a standard image by the 1920s, as described by The New York Times on 27 November 1927.

Haddon H. Sundblom, a commercial illustrator, began to work for Coca-Cola in 1924, and from 1931 on he created at least one painting of Santa Claus every year for use in advertisments by The Coca-Cola Company. The popularity of his paintings and Coca-Cola advertising helped cement the image of the tall, robust Santa Claus (like an "overweight superhero") in the public consciousness.

20th century additions include the appearence of Mrs. Claus, and the practice of leaving out small food gifts for Santa on Christmas Eve.


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